Project Management for Developing Countries

Projects are the basic building blocks of development. Without successful project identification, preparation and implementation, development plans are no more than wishes and developing nations would remain stagnant or regress.

There are many problems facing project management in developing countries. A number of factors have been identified for the poor performance of projects in developing countries. Generally, factor such as government policies, insufficient funds, withdrawal by donors, shortage of foreign exchange, inappropriate contract conditions, political priorities, poverty, socio-cultural conditions, corruption, low institutional and human capacity, and occurrence of unexpected events such as war, drought are considered to be the major factors behind the poor performance of projects in developing countries. Projects in developing countries are highly influenced by their external environment. Moreover, the project environment in many developing countries is unstable and characterized by rapid change of markets, shift of funding sources, frequent change of government policies and the business environment.

Another important reason for failure of projects in developing countries is the way projects are set up and implemented in those countries. This is mainly applicable to the so called “development projects.” In such projects, it is common to see lack of involvement and consultation of users and the tendency of some donors to finance only what they wanted or perceived to be important for the recipient rather than based on need of the users (Andersen, 2008). Sometimes public projects in developing countries fail due to lack of comprehensive planning and study.

Most of the reasons for failure of projects and their poor management in developing countries can be associated with the failure to consider the specific context of developing countries and critically adopt the PM methodologies to the context of developing countries.

In developing countries, the project manager must appreciate the project environment, maintain flexibility, and be competent to analyze the nature of associated problems and their adverse effects on the success of the project, and address these promptly.

One cannot draw a definite conclusion as to whether project management is or is not a solution for all the kinds of problems that developing countries are facing in regard to mobilizing their resources and overcoming their administrative and management incapacities. However, as noted earlier, this approach does have the potential to help solve some of these problems, if and when it is correctly used with careful consideration of local requirements and local conditions.

Top Ten Go Frameworks in Web Development for Developers

Go frameworks are in large call for withinside the programming language network for web development

Developers want powerful Go frameworks for efficient web development in this international tech marketplace. Go language is trending and gaining recognition amongst builders’ communities. Go builders are thriving withinside the international tech marketplace for their web development abilities with those programming languages. Let’s discover a number of the pinnacle Go frameworks that builders want to apply for web development in more than one package successfully and correctly in 2022.


Beego is one of the pinnacle Go frameworks for builders for use in web development. It has RESTful assist, and an MVC model, and uses a bee device to construct apps successfully. Developers can use capabilities which include code warm compile, automatic testing, and automatic packing and deploying. It gives Go builders complete manipulation of online apps with sensible routing, integrated modules, and monitoring.


The kit is Go developer-friendly, easy and smooth to learn, and rests on REPL-pushed improvement effective code technology tools. It is possible to pick productiveness and overall performance via way of means of leveraging Clojure at the JVM. The Go framework has low overhead and is compiled for production. It is beneficial for builders in web development as it’s far constructed for the wishes of scalable structures with smooth horizontally, stateless net tier, and has assistance for SQL, caching, scheduling, and greater.


Echo is one of the pinnacle Go frameworks as an excessive overall performance, extensible, minimalist software for Go builders. It has an enormously optimized HTTP router with 0 dynamic reminiscence allocation which neatly prioritizes routes. For higher scalability, it’s far constructed sturdy and scalable RESTful API, without problems prepared into groups. It mechanically installs a TLS certificate from Let’s Encrypt. Its template renders the use of any template engine. The Go framework is custom-designed for critical HTTP mistakes managing and has a problem extendable API for Go builders.


Iris is an effective and well-designed, cross-platform, Go framework with a sturdy set of capabilities for powerful web development. It enables one to construct one’s very own excessive-overall performance net packages and its APIs are powered via way of means of limitless potential and portability. If one is coming from the Node.js world, that is the expressive equal for the Go Programming Language for builders. An Iris-powered net software may be deployed as Serverless too; it runs on AWS and Netlify also.


Fiber is an Express-stimulated Go framework constructed on the pinnacle of Fast HTTP, the quickest HTTP engine for Go for web development. It is designed to ease matters up for builders for instant improvement with 0 reminiscence allocation and overall performance in mind. Fiber can provide the subsequent benefits: excessive overall performance and occasional reminiscence footprint, speedy server-aspect programming, integrated middleware for maximum tasks, wealthy and sturdy routing, smooth serve static documents and paintings with databases, assist of all famous template engines.

Gin Gonic

Gin Gonic is an HTTP net framework written in Go (Golang) for web development. It capabilities a Martini-like API with an awful lot higher overall performance — as much as forty instances faster. It is an excessive-overall performance micro-framework that may be used to construct net packages and microservices. It makes it easy to construct a request managing pipeline from modular, reusable pieces. It may be on the whole categorized as “Frameworks (Full Stack)” tools. SpartanGeek, Sezzle, and SEASON are a number of famous agencies that use Gin Gonic.


Buffalo is turning into a famous preference for Go builders who want to grow the rate in their web development servers and microservices. Buffalo is one of the pinnacle Go frameworks to permit speedy improvement in GO just like Ruby on Rails. It gives one an easy toolbox, the Buffalo Command, to generate many elements of the app and run typical tasks. The toolbox may be prolonged with plugins, and the usage of the language one wants.


Kratos is a microservice-orientated governance framework carried out via way of means of Go lang, which gives handy competencies to assist one quick construct a bulletproof software from scratch, which include Abstract transport layer assist, Powerful middleware design, assist, Registry interface, the Standard Log Interfaces, automated assist the choice of the content material encoding, uniform metadata switch method, verification rules. Kratos has the maximum significant and thorough documentation and example library of all present-day net software frameworks.


Gorilla is an internet toolkit for the Go programming language. Currently, those applications are available: gorilla/mux is an effective URL router and dispatcher. gorilla/opposite produces reversible everyday expressions for regexp-primarily based totally muxes. gorilla/rpc implements RPC over HTTP with codec for JSON-RPC. Package gorilla/mux implements a request router and dispatcher for matching incoming requests to their respective handler. The call mux stands for “HTTP request multiplexer”.


Revel is called one of the pinnacle bendy Go frameworks for the Go language. Developers can use routing, parameter parsing, validation, caching, and lots of greater capabilities for powerful web development. It is constructed around composable middleware called filters to update the default filters with custom implementations.

Crypto Currency Vs Fiat Currency

Crypto currency vs. Fiat currency

Are you aware of the fiat currencies and the crypto currencies? They both are currencies in one form or the other and are open for public use across the world. But they are both different and distinct in their own ways. There is always one group that favors the use of cryptos, while the other has a soft corner for the fiat currencies.

In cashless society- crypto money play a huge role

If you have a look at the market of the 1970s and 1980s, you will find that the cash played the dominant role. But, with the change in the technology, electronic transactions have become the usual norm. Today, more and more people are influenced in becoming the cashless society. With the progress towards the cashless society, cryptocurrencies have a big role to play.

Crypto currency and fiat currency are always at loggerheads

Cryptocurrency and fiat currency are popular types of digital currency, especially when it is about an online transaction. They both are currencies currently in use in the market but have some differences in them. There is a hell lot of hypes that you will hear on a daily basis comparing the crypto money and the fiat money. This article will highlight the difference between the two in a more comprehensive and clear manner.

Differentiating in what the currencies stand for

Before going for the difference between the two, you must understand what do they stand for and how are they are defined.

The fiat currency is a legal tender that has the support of the central government, and it operates in the physical form. For instance, US dollars, British Pounds, Euro etc. On the other hand, the crypto currency is a non-legal tender, and doesn’t have any backup from the central government or bank.
Hence, the difference between crypto currency and fiat currency is noted as follows:

• Crypto-currencies are decentralized and global in nature. There are no one entity or government that controls the currency with their laws and regulations. The Fiat currency is centralized, under the control of the laws and regulations of the banks and government.

• Crypto-currencies have their existence only in the digital domain. On the other hand, you will find that the fiat currencies have a tangible and physical existence.

• There is a limited supply of crypto-currencies with a maximum set of them getting supplied in the market. Whereas, the fiat money has an unlimited supply as the government and bank are entitled to produce coins and paper money whenever the situation is required.

• The Bitcoin and other crypto type currencies are created by the computers, while the fiat currencies are issued by the local government and the banks.

• Cryptocurrencies are presented as the public and private code pieces. On the other hand, the fiat currencies are presented in the form of coins and paper money.

• The value of the crypto currencies is not recognized by the supply and demand of the market. Whereas, the fiat currency value is determined by the market regulations of supply and demand.

The different types of crypto and fiat currencies

In the last one decade, the popularity of crypto type currencies has emerged as a huge success. It was in 2009, when Bitcoin was first introduced, and years after several other types of crypto currencies have emerged. Starting from Litecoin. Dogecoin, Ripple to the Dcash and Zcash, there is a plethora of them. On the other hand, the fiat currency has a rich and ancient roots, with the Great British Pound, that dates back to 775 AD. It is considered as the oldest currency in the world that is still in use.

The differences in the anonymity between the two currencies

When you are using the fiat currencies, you need to undergo a user identification or verification process. You are asked to upload a recent picture of yourself and some of the required documents to be issued as per the public authorities. You don’t need to undergo any of the required processes with the crypto currencies. Though your personal information and confidential details don’t get public, but all your transactions are recorded and tracked in both the fiat and the crypto currencies.

Fiat currency vs crypto currency: transparency level

• The transparency level with the crypto type currencies are considered to be more. This is because the revenue streams are displayed in a public chain. Everyone can witness their own and others’ transactions.

• The fiat or govt. currencies are not transparent, as there are not public chains to see the revenue streams of the people.

A comparative historical roots

If you compare the crypto money with that of its counterpart, fiat or government currency, you will find that their existence and creation brings the difference. The Fiat or government currency, dates back its existence as early as 775 AD with the introduction of the Great British Pound. This is why fiat type currency is easily accepted by the people all over.

On the other hand, the crypto coin was perhaps first introduced only a decade ago, with the introduction of Bitcoin in 2009. The challenge that the Bitcoin and other crypto currencies face is catching up with the immense popularity and increasing fan base of the fiat currency. Crypto currency, is no doubt gaining importance and popularity in the economic market, but it has still not been accepted widely in the society as the fiat currency.

A comparative history of the two currencies:

• It was in the 11th century, when the Chinese Song dynasty was perhaps the first one to issue the paper money. It was not allowed to exchange with valuables like gold and silver or silk.

• There were Tally sticks that were introduced as a fiat or government currency. 1100 Tally sticks were introduced as a combat for the shortages in gold.

• 1971, was the year, when the fiat currency received a worldwide recognition. President Nixon introduced it in order to eliminate the dollar pegging system to gold.

• It was in 1998, when the idea of an anonymous electronic cash system emerged by Wei Dai. Bitgold-the very first crypto currency was created by Nick Szabo, but it didn’t receive as much attention as Bitcoin.

• In 2009, Bitcoin was introduced in the market, that became the first crypto currency that was accepted across the globe. In 2011 and after, a series of several other crypto currencies were introduced. Some of the popular ones include, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Zcash, Dash and so on.

The traits of both the currencies

The potential of the crypto type currencies and fiat currencies, accessing their traits is important. You will find that in some of the criteria, Bitcoin and other crypto currency is superior than the fiat or government currency, and in some cases, the latter surpasses. It is absolutely your call to choose the type of currency (crypto type currency or fiat type currency) based on your personal needs and requirements.

Let us compare their traits with respect to certain factors.

• Both the crypto coins and fiat type currencies are interchangeable in nature.

• As per the portability is concerned both the currencies secure more or less the same position.

• With respect to the non consumable criteria, crypto currency and fiat type currency have the equal status.

• Crypto type currencies have high durability as compared to the fiat-currencies that have moderate level of durability.

• Both the crypto or virtual currencies and the fiat or government currencies ensure secure and safeguarded transactions and exchange.

• Crypto or digital currencies are highly divisible in nature. On the other hand, the fiat type currencies are moderately divisible.

• In terms of the transaction process, the crypto currencies are easy and hassle free. Whereas, on the other hand, the traction process associated with the fiat currencies are easy, but not like the cryptos.

• The crypto based currencies are decentralized and global in nature, unlike the fiat currencies that are centralized and functions under the laws and regulations of the government.

• The crypto based currencies have high scarcity, where as, the fiat currencies are unlimited as the government can issue coins and paper money whenever there is a need.

• The crypto based currencies are based on mathematical algorithms, and are programmable. The fiat currencies are not at all programmable.

• The fiat currencies are sovereign in nature, while the crypto currencies are not.

The process of the functioning of the currencies

You can find the significant differences between the crypto or digital currencies and the fiat currencies with the way they both operate and the transaction process that take place. They are contrasting in nature. The transfer of money using the Bitcoin is very quick, and you absolutely don’t need any third party association.

On the other hand, if you are involved with the money exchange using Fiat type currency, a mobile wallet is in use. You can exchange an amount of e-money that gets transferred into the equal e-value amount. Both the fiat and the crypto currencies enable you to purchase everything that you desire. But the processes involved are absolutely distinct from each other.

Depending on the things you purchase, you will find that one currency form is better than the other. This is absolutely your choice.

Is Bitcoin, a crypto currency better than the fiat-currency?

The long term benefits and the capability of the Bitcoins is still not established. But it has been predicted by the crypto currency gurus and experts, that they will go a long way, especially revolutionizing the way the online transactions are done. In the current market, the Bitcoin is mainly included in the online casinos and the gambling, but it is not limited to it.

Furthermore, when you compare the fiat currencies, the Bitcoin allows you to seize the power and authority from the banks and the government since it is not controlled. The cryptography based currency has the capability to create or come up with the free market capitals. Fiat currencies are affected by the inflation and the changes in the market, unlike the crypto based currencies. Such aspects make individuals believe that cryptograph based currencies will soon take over the mainstream currencies and bring a transformation in the way the money is used.

Why is Bitcoins considered to be a better aspect than the fiat type currencies?

• Bitcoin gives you the opportunity to re-create a free market capitalism.

• The power of controlling the money is absolutely with the individuals, and not with the banks like the fiat type currencies.

• When there is an inflation, the Bitcoin is not affected. But the Fiat type currency will be easier to lose and get affected by it.

• The Bitcoin currency is easy easier to exchange and transfer as compared to the fiat or government currencies.

• The transaction fees involved with the Bitcoin are way cheaper and easily affordable.

Crypto currencies seem to be a favorable option among the people

The fiat type currencies are the centralized and legal way of exchanging money. But, the crypto currencies have acquired immense popularity in the past few years. There will never be anyone who would act as a middle man, like the case with the banks. Moreover, the cryptos are way cheaper and less expensive that the conventional fiat currencies.

Send money anywhere directly without waiting for the bank’s approval

You can send money to anyone in the world directly, and it is super fast. The money gets cleared within a few minutes time. You don’t have to wait for the traditional clearing and verification processes of the banking systems, which might take up to several days to get a clearance. Since it is decentralized and doesn’t come under the law and regulations of the government, nobody has any power to do anything with your account.

The blockchain technology has a very big role to play

Thanks to the crypto currencies, that gives us the power and the authority to become our very own bank, and take control over our finances. It is because of the blockchain technology that offers a higher level of sophistication while dealing with the finances. In fact, there are some mainstream financial industries that have started incorporating the idea of the technology.